Conduct-by-Wire 2 - Driving Together with the Vehicle

Below you will find a short summary of the project. For further information please contact the project managers via the contact button on the right side.


In the first DFG research project “Conduct-by-Wire – A New Paradigm of Vehicle Guidance”, it was already examined to which extent the integration of all driver assistance systems in a comprehensive system, supports the driver in fulfilling the driving task. In Conduct-by-Wire, the driver now hands over manoeuvre commands to the vehicle (for example lane change to the left), which the vehicle then carries out automatically. During the first project period (April 2008 to April 2010), the focus was on examining the feasibility of such a concept in motorway scenarios. After several studies have shown that it is possible for the driver to control a vehicle by means of manoeuvres, the DFG follow-up project “From Conduct-by-Wire to a Cooperative Vehicle Guidance” dealt with the further development of the system. Together with the Department of Automotive Engineering of the TU Darmstadt, an attempt was made to develop this concept further in the direction of joint fulfilment of the driving task and to open up new traffic areas (rural roads and urban scenarios). The main task of the Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors was the development of driver-friendly user interfaces and the review of the acceptance of the vehicle guidance concept.

Picture: IAD
Concept sketch of the contact-analogue head-up display in the IAD driving simulator


The following questions were dealt with in the context of this research project:

  • How must an operator interface be designed to ensure the transfer of manoeuvres and parameters to the vehicle, adapted to the situation?
  • How must an operator interface be designed to ensure that the driver is able to anticipate the future actions of the vehicle at all times?
  • How must an operator interface be designed to give the driver the feeling of working together with the vehicle?
  • Is a manoeuvre-based vehicle guidance concept accepted by drivers?
  • How should such a system be designed, to be accepted by the driver?
  • What effect does the change of the vehicle guidance have on the driver behaviour / understanding of the role of the driver?


The development process of the user interfaces was a user-centred process, which means that users have repeatedly given feedback throughout the development process. For this purpose, several driving simulation studies were conducted, in which the users could actively experience the interaction. In a comparative study, an operator interface (for an example, see Video 1) was then selected based on subjective ratings (e.g., simplicity, stress) and objective criteria (e.g., gaze behaviour, interaction behaviours, accidents). This interface was used in a driving simulation study over a longer period of time by the subjects in order to obtain better conclusions about the acceptance of the users and the influence on the driver behaviour. Additional interview studies and online surveys on the acceptance of the conduct-by-wire system were conducted simultaneously.

Picture: IAD


As a result of the project, the concept pieDrive was developed for the driver-vehicle interaction. It allows a distraction-free commissioning of manoeuvres through an intuitive design. All relevant information for the driver is displayed via a contact-analogous head-up display in the driver's field of vision. The driver enters information via a touchpad conveniently located in the area of the centre console.


The project “Conduct-by-Wire 2 – Driving Together with the Vehicle” was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) under project number 63157795.


Franz, B., Kauer, M., Geyer, S., & Hakuli, S. (2015). Conduct-by-Wire. In: H. Winner, S. Hakuli, F. Lotz & C. Singer (Hrsg.), Handbuch Fahrerassistenzsysteme. ATZ/MTZ-Fachbuch (S. 1111-1121). Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden.

Kauer, M., Franz, B., Maier, A., & Bruder, R. (2014). The influence of highly automated driving on the selfperception of drivers in the context of Conduct-by- Wire. Ergonomics, 58(2), 321-334.

Franz, B. (2014). Entwicklung und Evaluation eines Interaktionskonzepts zur manöverbasierten Führung von Fahrzeugen. [Dissertation] Technische Universität Darmstadt.

Geyer, S., Karg, M., Hakuli, S., Winner, H., Franz, B., & Kauer, M. (2012). Temporal Analysis of the Gate Concept as Enabler for Highly Automated Driving based on the Conduct-by-Wire Approach. In: 15th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2012), 16.–19. September 2012, Anchorage, USA.

Franz, B., Kauer, M., Bruder, R., & Geyer, S. (2012). pieDrive – a New Driver-Vehicle Interaction Concept for Maneuver-Based Driving. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Workshops (IV), 03. Juni 2012, Alcala de Henares, Spanien.

Geyer, S., Hakuli, S., Winner, H., Franz, B., & Kauer, M. (2012). Ermittlung der Anforderungen an die Umfelderkennung für Conduct-by-Wire. In: 5. Tagung Fahrerassistenz, 15.–16. Mai 2012, München.

Franz, B., Kauer, M., Blanke, A., Schreiber, M., Bruder, R., & Geyer, S. (2012). Comparison of two human-machine-interfaces for cooperative maneuver-based driving. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 41(Suppl 1), 4192-4199.

Kauer, M., Franz, B., Schreiber, M., Bruder, R., & Geyer, S. (2012). User acceptance of cooperative maneuver-based driving – a summary of three studies. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 41(Suppl 1), 4258-4264.

Schreiber, M. (2011). Konzeptionierung und Evaluierung eines Ansatzes zu einer manöverbasierten Fahrzeugführung im Nutzungskontext Autobahnfahrten. [Dissertation] Technische Universität Darmstadt.

Franz, B., Kauer, M., Schreiber, M., Blanke, A., Distler, S., Bruder, R., & Geyer, S. (2011). Maneuver-Based Driving Today and in the Future – Development of a New Human-Machine Interface for Conduct-by-Wire. In: 6. VDI-Tagung – Der Fahrer im 21. Jahrhundert, 08.–09. November 2011, Braunschweig.

Hakuli, S., Geyer, S., Winner, H., Kauer, M., & Schreiber, M. (2011). Systematic Development of Manoeuvre-Based Driver Assistance Functions for Conduct-by-Wire with IPG CarMaker. In: IPG Technology Conference „apply & innovate 2010", 15.-16. September 2011, Karlsruhe.

Geyer, S., Hakuli, S., Winner, H., Franz, B., & Kauer, M. (2011). Development of a Cooperative System Behavior for a Highly Automated Vehicle Guidance Concept based on the Conduct-by-Wire Principle. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 05.–09. Juni 2011, Baden-Baden.

Bruder, R., Franz, B., Kauer, M., & Schreiber, M. (2011). Fahrerverhalten einer kooperativen Fahrer-Fahrzeug-Interaktion. In: Zukunft der Fahrzeugführung – kooperativ oder autonom? In: Mensch und Fahrzeug, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 06.-07. April 2011.

Franz, B., Schreiber, M., Kauer, M., Geyer, S., & Bruder, R. (2011). Konzeption eines kontaktanalogen Head-Up-Displays für Fahrerassistenzsysteme am Beispiel von Conduct-by-Wire. In: 57. GfA-Frühjahrskonress, 23.–25. März 2011, Chemnitz.

Kauer, M., Schreiber, M., Franz, B., Hakuli, S., Geyer, S., Eggers, D., & Bruder, R. (2011). Nutzungsszenarien der manöverbasierten Fahrzeugführung. In: 57. GfA-Frühjahrskonress, 23.–25. März 2011, Chemnitz.

Kauer, M., Schreiber, M., & Bruder, R. (2010). How to conduct a car? A design example for maneuver based driver-vehicle interaction. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 21.–24. Juni 2010, San Diego, USA.

Kauer, M., Schreiber, M., Bruder, R., Hakuli, S., & Basha, A. (2010). Nutzbarkeit taktiler Touchdisplays im Fahrzeug. In: 56. GfA-Frühjahrskongress, 24.–26. März 2010, Darmstadt.

Kauer, M., Schreiber, M., Hakuli, S., & Bruder, R. (2010). Akzeptanz manöverbasierter Fahrzeugführungskonzepte am Beispiel von Conduct-by-Wire. In: 5. VDI Fachtagung USEWARE 2010, 13.–14. Oktober 2010, Baden-Baden.

Schreiber, M., Kauer, M., Hakuli, S., & Bruder, R. (2010). Conduct-by-Wire: Evaluation von teilautonomer Fahrzeugführung mit Hilfe der Wizard of Oz-Technik. In: 56. GfA-Frühjahrskongress, 24.–26. März 2010, Darmstadt.

Schreiber, M., Kauer, M., Schlesinger, D., Hakuli, S., & Bruder, R. (2010). Verification of a maneuver catalog for a maneuver-based vehicle guidance system. In: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 10.–13. Oktober 2010, Istanbul, Türkei.

Hakuli, S., Schreiber, M., & Winner, H. (2009). Entwicklung eines Methodenkatalogs für manöverbasiertes Fahren nach dem Conduct-by-Wire-Prinzip – Ein Fahrerassistenzkonzept auf Bahnführungsebene. In: 1. Automobiltechnisches Kolloquium, 16.–17. April 2009, München.

Hakuli, S., Bruder, R., Flemisch, F., Löper, C., Rausch, H., Schreiber, M., & Winner, H. (2009). Kooperative Automation. In: H. Winner, S. Hakuli & G. Wolf (Hrsg.), Handbuch Fahrerassistenzsysteme. Grundlagen, Komponenten, und Systeme für aktive Sicherheit und Komfort (S. 647-656). Springer Vieweg+Teubner, Wiesbaden.

Schreiber, M., Kauer, M., & Bruder, R. (2009). Conduct by Wire – Maneuver Catalog for Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Guidance. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, 3.–5. Juni 2009, Xi'an, China.

Winner, H., Hakuli, S., Bruder, R., Konigorski, U., & Schiele, B. (2006). Conduct-by-Wire – ein neues Paradigma für die Entwicklung der Fahrerassistenz. In: 4. Workshop Fahrerassistenzsysteme, 4.–6. Oktober 2006, Löwenstein/Hößlinsülz.