Driving Together with the Vehicle – Conduct-by-Wire 2

Below you will find a short summary of the project. For further information please contact the project managers via the contact button on the right side.

Background

In the first DFG research project “Conduct-by-Wire – A New Paradigm of Vehicle Guidance”, it was already examined to which extent the integration of all driver assistance systems in a comprehensive system, supports the driver in fulfilling the driving task. In Conduct-by-Wire, the driver now hands over manoeuvre commands to the vehicle (for example lane change to the left), which the vehicle then carries out automatically. During the first project period (April 2008 to April 2010), the focus was on examining the feasibility of such a concept in motorway scenarios. After several studies have shown that it is possible for the driver to control a vehicle by means of manoeuvres, the DFG follow-up project “From Conduct-by-Wire to a Cooperative Vehicle Guidance” dealt with the further development of the system. Together with the Department of Automotive Engineering of the TU Darmstadt, an attempt was made to develop this concept further in the direction of joint fulfilment of the driving task and to open up new traffic areas (rural roads and urban scenarios). The main task of the Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors was the development of driver-friendly user interfaces and the review of the acceptance of the vehicle guidance concept.

Picture: IAD
Concept sketch of the contact-analogue head-up display in the IAD driving simulator

Aims

The following questions were dealt with in the context of this research project:

  • How must an operator interface be designed to ensure the transfer of manoeuvres and parameters to the vehicle, adapted to the situation?
  • How must an operator interface be designed to ensure that the driver is able to anticipate the future actions of the vehicle at all times?
  • How must an operator interface be designed to give the driver the feeling of working together with the vehicle?
  • Is a manoeuvre-based vehicle guidance concept accepted by drivers?
  • How should such a system be designed, to be accepted by the driver?
  • What effect does the change of the vehicle guidance have on the driver behaviour / understanding of the role of the driver?

Methods

The development process of the user interfaces was a user-centred process, which means that users have repeatedly given feedback throughout the development process. For this purpose, several driving simulation studies were conducted, in which the users could actively experience the interaction. In a comparative study, an operator interface (for an example, see Video 1) was then selected based on subjective ratings (e.g., simplicity, stress) and objective criteria (e.g., gaze behaviour, interaction behaviours, accidents). This interface was used in a driving simulation study over a longer period of time by the subjects in order to obtain better conclusions about the acceptance of the users and the influence on the driver behaviour. Additional interview studies and online surveys on the acceptance of the conduct-by-wire system were conducted simultaneously.

Results

As a result of the project, the concept pieDrive was developed for the driver-vehicle interaction. It allows a distraction-free commissioning of manoeuvres through an intuitive design. All relevant information for the driver is displayed via a contact-analogous head-up display in the driver's field of vision. The driver enters information via a touchpad conveniently located in the area of the centre console.

Picture: IAD

Publications

Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela; Geyer, Sebastian; Hakuli, Stephan :Conduct-by-Wire. In: Handbuch Fahrerassistenzsysteme. Springer Fachmedien , pp. 1111-1121. [Buchkapitel], (2015)

Kauer, Michaela; Franz, Benjamin; Maier, A.; Bruder, Ralph: The influence of highly automated driving on the selfperception of drivers in the context of Conduct-by- Wire. [Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2014.970587] In: Ergonomics [Artikel], (2014)

Franz, Benjamin: Entwicklung und Evaluation eines Interaktionskonzepts zur manöverbasierten Führung von Fahrzeugen. [Online-Edition: http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/3963] TU Darmstadt, Institut für Arbeitswissenschaft , Darmstadt [Dissertation], (2014)

Geyer, Sebastian; Karg, Melanie; Hakuli, Stephan; Winner, Hermann; Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela: Temporal Analysis of the Gate Concept as Enabler for Highly Automated Driving based on the Conduct-by-Wire Approach. In: 2012 15th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems – (ITSC 2012), 16. – 19. September 2012, Anchorage, USA. Anchorage, Alaska [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2012)

Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela; Bruder, Ralph; Geyer, S.: pieDrive – a New Driver-Vehicle Interaction Concept for Maneuver-Based Driving. [Online-Edition: http://hfiv.lfe.mw.tum.de/2012/203.pdf] In: 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Workshops (IV), 03.06.2012, Alcala de Henares (Spain). [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2012)

Geyer, Sebastian; Hakuli, Stephan; Winner, Hermann; Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela: Ermittlung der Anforderungen an die Umfelderkennung für Conduct-by-Wire. In: 5. Tagung Fahrerassistenz, 15. – 16. Mai 2012, München. [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2012)

Franz, B.; Kauer, M.; Bruder, R.; Geyer, S.: pieDrive – a New Driver-Vehicle Interaction Concept for Maneuver-Based Driving. In: 2012 International IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Workshops.. Alcalá de Henares, Spanien [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2012)

Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela; Blanke, Anton; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph; Geyer, Sebastian: Comparison of two human-machine-interfaces for cooperative maneuver-based driving. In: Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 41 (1) pp. 4192-4199. ISSN 1051-9815 [Artikel], (2012)

Kauer, M.; Franz, B.; Schreiber, M.; Bruder, R.; Geyer, S.: User acceptance of cooperative maneuver-based driving – a summary of three studies. In: Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. , pp. 4258-4264. [Buchkapitel], (2012)

Kauer, Michaela; Franz, Benjamin; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph; Geyer, Sebastian: User acceptance of cooperative maneuver-based driving – a summary of three studies. In: Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 41 (1) pp. 4258-4264. ISSN 1051-9815 [Artikel], (2012)

Schreiber, Michael: Konzeptionierung und Evaluierung eines Ansatzes zu einer manöverbasierten Fahrzeugführung im Nutzungskontext Autobahnfahrten. Institut für Arbeitswissenschaft , Darmstadt [Dissertation]

Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela; Schreiber, Michael; Blanke, Anton; Distler, Sebastian; Bruder, Ralph; Geyer, S.: Maneuver-Based Driving Today and in the Future – Development of a New Human-Machine Interface for Conduct-by-Wire. In: 6. VDI-Tagung – Der Fahrer im 21. Jahrhundert, 08. – 09. November 2011, Braunschweig. In: VDI-Berichte , 2134 . Düsseldorf [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2011)

Hakuli, S.; Geyer, S.; Winner, H.; Kauer, Michaela; Schreiber, Michael: Systematic Development of Manoeuvre-Based Driver Assistance Functions for Conduct-by-Wire with IPG CarMaker. In: IPG Technology Conference „apply & innovate 2010“. [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2011)

Geyer, S.; Hakuli, S.; Winner, H.; Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela: Development of a Cooperative System Behavior for a Highly Automated Vehicle Guidance Concept based on the Conduct-by-Wire Principle. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 05 – 09. Juni 2011, Baden-Baden. [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2011)

Bruder, Ralph; Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph; Winner, Hermann (eds.): Fahrerverhalten einer kooperativen Fahrer-Fahrzeug-Interaktion. In: Zukunft der Fahrzeugführung – kooperativ oder autonom?, 5. Darmstädter Kolloquium Mensch & Fahrzeug, 06. – 07. April 2011, Darmstadt. Darmstadt [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2011)

Franz, Benjamin; Schreiber, Michael; Kauer, Michaela; Geyer, S.; Bruder, Ralph: Konzeption eines kontaktanalogen Head-Up-Displays für Fahrerassistenzsysteme am Beispiel von Conduct-by-Wire. In: Mensch, Technik, Organisation – Vernetzung im Produktentstehungs- und herstellungsprozess, 57. Kongress der Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft, 23. – 25. März 2011, Chemnitz. [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2011)

Franz, B.; Schreiber, M.; Kauer, M.; Geyer, S.; Bruder, R.: Konzeption eines kontaktanalogen Head-Up-Displays für Fahrerassistenzsysteme am Beispiel von Conduct-by-Wire. In: 57. Kongress der Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft. Chemnitz [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2011)

Kauer, Michaela; Schreiber, Michael; Franz, Benjamin; Hakuli, S.; Geyer, S.; Eggers, Dörte; Bruder, Ralph: Nutzungsszenarien der manöverbasierten Fahrzeugführung. In: Mensch, Technik, Organisation – Vernetzung im Produktentstehungs- und herstellungsprozess, 57. Kongress der Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft, 23. – 25. März 2011, Chemnitz. [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2011)

Kauer, Michaela; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph: How to conduct a car? A design example for maneuver based driver-vehicle interaction. [Online-Edition: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5548099…] In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 21. – 24. Juni 2010, San Diego (USA). [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2010)

Kauer, Michaela; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph; Hakuli, Stephan; Basha, Ahmed: Nutzbarkeit taktiler Touchdisplays im Fahrzeug. In: Neue Arbeits- und Lebenswelten gestalten, 56. Frühjahrskongress der Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft, 24. – 26. März 2010, Darmstadt. GfA-Press , Dortmund [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2010)

Kauer, Michaela; Schreiber, Michael; Hakuli, Stephan; Bruder, Ralph: Akzeptanz manöverbasierter Fahrzeugführungskonzepte am Beispiel von Conduct-by-Wire. In: Grundlagen – Methoden – Technologien, 5. VDI Fachtagung USEWARE 2010, 13. – 14. Oktober, Baden-Baden. [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2010)

Schreiber, Michael; Kauer, Michaela; Hakuli, Stephan; Bruder, Ralph: Conduct-by-Wire: Evaluation von teilautonomer Fahrzeugführung mit Hilfe der Wizard of Oz-Technik. In: Neue Arbeits- und Lebenswelten gestalten, 56. Frühjahrskongress der Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft, 24. – 26. März 2010, Darmstadt. GfA-Press , Dortmund [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2010)

Schreiber, Michael; Kauer, Michaela; Schlesinger, Dennis; Hakuli, S.; Bruder, Ralph: Verification of a maneuver catalog for a maneuver-based vehicle guidance system. In: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 10. – 13. Oktober 2010, Istanbul (Türkei). [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2010)

Hakuli, S.; Schreiber, Michael; Winner, H.: Entwicklung eines Methodenkatalogs für manöverbasiertes Fahren nach dem Conduct-by-Wire-Prinzip – Ein Fahrerassistenzkonzept auf Bahnführungsebene. In: 1. Automobiltechnisches Kolloquium, 16. – 17. April 2009, München. München [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2009)

Hakuli, Stephan; Bruder, Ralph; Flemisch, F.; Löper, C.; Rausch, H.; Schreiber, Michael; Winner, Hermann; Winner, Hermann; Hakuli, Stephan; Wolf, Gabriele (eds.): Kooperative Automation. In: Handbuch Fahrerassistenzsysteme. Grundlagen, Komponenten und Systeme für aktive Sicherheit und Komfort. Vieweg+Teubner, Wiesbaden , pp. 647-656. [Buchkapitel], (2009)

Schreiber, Michael; Kauer, Michaela; Bruder, Ralph: Conduct by Wire – Maneuver Catalog for Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Guidance. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, 3. – 5. Juni 2009. Xi'an [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2009)

Winner, H.; Hakuli, S.; Bruder, R.; Konigorski, Ulrich; Schiele, Bernt: Conduct-by-Wire – ein neues Paradigma für die Entwicklung der Fahrerassistenz. In: 4. Workshop Fahrerassistenzsysteme, 4. – 6. Oktober 2006, Löwenstein / Hößlinsülz. Christoph Stiller; Markus Maurer. – Karlsruhe : Fmrt [Konferenz- oder Workshop-Beitrag], (2006)